PAC's Approach

With its civil society partners, PAC’s vision for the diamond supply chain is one in which the diamond sector is responsibly managed by governments, industry and local communities so as to strengthen and support human security, local community beneficiation and national economic development.

To achieve this vision, PAC takes a multi-faceted approach to governance, recognizing that accountable institutions need to be built at the local, national, regional and international levels, and that a multiplicity of actors need to be involved in the design, development and implementation of these institutions.

This multi-faceted approach is based on the idea that contemporary efforts to manage global supply chains in pursuit of socially responsible objectives cannot depend on any one type of governance system, or any one type of governance actor. Instead, efforts to achieve sustainable development outcomes in supply chains should tap into multiple, intertwining governance mechanisms.

Accordingly, PAC works on designing and improving governance through:

  • Inter-state agreements (e.g. the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme).
  • National action (e.g. training customs officials to tackle diamond smuggling).
  • Community projects (e.g. supporting civil society groups to monitor human rights violations and analyze how diamond revenues are distributed).
  • Private-sector activities (e.g. advocating for industry to develop more robust ‘non-state market driven mechanisms', such as the Responsible Jewelry Council’s Chain of Custody initiative or improving the World Diamond Council inadequate system of warranties).

PAC and its partners also invest substantial resources into monitoring the implementation of the KPCS and identifying ways to strengthen its ability to be a global governance tool. This work has focused primarily on providing reform options for the KP, as well as fostering better collaboration among enforcement agencies (customs and police) in KP countries.

PAC Successes

PAC’s research is recognized internationally for its accuracy and influence. In-depth studies on important and major problems within the diamond industry or KP participating countries have earned us praise, and sometimes the wrath of our targets.

Our work led an American Senator and two Congressmen to co-nominate PAC for the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize. Two of PAC’s research associates—Ian Smillie and Lansana Gberie—were also awarded the prestigious Canadian Policy Research Award, in recognition of their ground breaking research in West Africa.

Other examples of the impact of PAC’s work include:

  • Evidence of rights abuses and smuggling uncovered in Diamonds and Clubs: The Militarized Control of Diamonds and Power in Zimbabwe was used by several governments in June 2010 to maintain an export ban on Marange diamonds and call for greater compliance by Zimbabwe.
  • Two PAC reports on Brazil revealed massive fraud in its diamond industry, resulting in a complete shutdown of Brazilian diamond exports for more than six months in 2006, and a complete restructuring of the country's control systems.
  • A PAC report in 2006 showed that 100% of Venezuela's diamond production is non-compliant with KPCS standards and is being smuggled out of the country, leading Venezuela to self-suspend from the KP.
  • A joint 2004 PAC-Global Witness report, "Rich Man, Poor Man – Development Diamonds and Poverty Diamonds: The Potential for Change in the Artisanal Alluvial Diamond Fields of Africa," led to the creation of the Diamond Development Initiative.
  • A PAC report on Liberian diamond sanctions in June 2004 was used by members of the UN Security Council to inform their deliberations.
  • PAC’s seminal 2000 report “The Heart of the Matter” provided most of the background information for the 2006 film, Blood Diamond, starring Leonardo DiCaprio.

While PAC has often played a watchdog role in the Kimberley Process and other fora, our reports have always been solutions oriented, providing realistic policy solutions to decision-makers in governments and industry that are aimed at improving resource governance in Africa.